Washington, DC, USA: US House of Representatives Republicans unveiled a draft tax bill on Thursday, calling for deep cuts in both individual and corporate tax rates. The Ways and Means Committee plans to take up the draft tax bill next week, with an eye toward a House vote before Thanksgiving. President Donald Trump is eager to sign a tax overhaul by December.
The 429-page bill, representing what would be the largest overhaul of the US tax system since the 1980s, called for slashing the corporate tax rate to 20 percent from 35 percent, cutting tax rates on individuals and families and ending certain tax breaks for companies and individuals.
Highlights of the draft Tax Cuts And Jobs Act bill include:
Seven individual tax brackets would be reduced to four brackets — 12 percent, 25 percent, 35 percent, and the current top rate of 39.6 percent remaining in place for the very wealthy.
Corporate taxes would drop from 35 percent to 20 percent permanently.
Standard deduction would increase from $6,350 to $12,000 for individuals and from $12,700 to $24,000 for married couples.
Child tax credit would expand from $1,000 to $1,600.
Federal deductions for state and local income and sales taxes would be eliminated, but local property taxes would be deductible up to $10,000.
No changes to limits on 401(k) pretax contributions.
Alternative minimum tax would be repealed.
Estate tax would kick in at $11.2 million, up from $5.49 million, but it would be fully repealed as of 2024.
Corporate profits from overseas would no longer be taxed, but there would be a minimum 10 percent tax on foreign subsidiaries.
The plan leaves intact a top individual tax rate of 39.6 percent to address criticism that the cuts are unduly favorable to the rich. The bill would raise the income threshold at which the top tax rate would apply to $500,000 for singles and $1 million for couples. In a boost for the wealthy, the plan also eliminates the alternative minimum tax and phases out the estate tax over a period of six years.
Broadly speaking, the GOP bill would sharply reduce taxes on both individuals and corporations, potentially draining trillions of dollars from federal coffers over the next decade. The Republican budget, however, makes room for only $1.5 trillion in revenue reduction over that period. And fast-track Senate rules, designed to avoid a Democratic filibuster, say the bill can’t add to the deficit beyond 10 years.
Republicans hope to offset some of the lost revenue from lower tax rates by eliminating tax breaks elsewhere in the code.
“With this plan, we are getting rid of loopholes for special interests and we are leveling the playing field,” said House Speaker Paul Ryan, R-Wis.
The bill nearly doubles the standard deduction, which will make tax filing easier for some people. However, it eliminates personal exemptions, which could adversely affect larger families.
“With this bill, we will grow our economy by delivering more jobs, fairer taxes, and bigger paychecks to Americans of all walks of life,” said Rep. Kevin Brady, R-Texas, chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.
President Trump suggested the reduced corporate tax rate would help to spur economic growth.
“At 20 percent, we’re very, very competitive with the rest of the world,” Trump said during a White House meeting to celebrate the bill’s release. “You’re going to see growth and you’re going to see jobs and you’re going to see really wages going up.”
The bill also aims to encourage business investment by allowing companies to deduct those costs immediately, rather than spreading the deduction over a period of years. However, this provision is scheduled to sunset after five years.
In addition, a lower tax rate of 25 percent would be established for so-called pass-through businesses, such as partnerships that currently pay taxes at their owners’ individual rate.
Multinational corporations would no longer be taxed on profits earned overseas, although the plan would establish a minimum tax rate of 10 percent on foreign subsidiaries.
A number of provisions would hit taxpayers in Democratic-leaning states hardest, like rolling back deductions for state and local taxes and cutting in half the popular mortgage interest deduction.
It stirred anger at US universities, which said its proposals to tax endowments of private institutions and repeal a deduction for student-loan interest payments would hurt institutions and students.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affect People who take the standard deduction
Under Current Law: In 2018, single taxpayers will deduct $6,500, and married couples will deduct $13,000. Then, taxpayers can add in exemptions — $4,150 for each qualifying person, including oneself. For a single person, this comes out to $10,650. For a hypothetical two-parent home with two kids, it would come out to $13,000 plus four times $4,150, or $29,600.
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: A single taxpayer would deduct $12,000, and a married couple would deduct $24,000. However, none will tack on any additional exemptions. So that single person would deduct $12,000 and not $10,650. Meanwhile, the two-parent home with two kids would get a $24,000 deduction now, not $29,600. However, they could also get a bigger child tax credit In other words, the total of the standard deduction plus exemptions would be smaller for some families with multiple children than it was before. A nearly doubled standard deduction would also mean fewer taxpayers itemizing their deductions, which Republicans argue would make it easier to do their taxes.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects Parents
Under Current Law: Taxpayers deduct a set amount — $4,150 per qualifying child — from their taxable income. Then, they apply the child tax credit by subtracting up to $1,000 per child from the final tax bill. (The total amount depends on a tax filer’s income; the credit phases out as income gets higher.)
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: Taxpayers would not apply exemptions for their children. They would, however, apply a larger child tax credit, of up to $1,600 per child. This could help families make up for the loss of exemptions (as explained above). There is also an additional $300 credit for each parent and nonchild dependent.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects People with 401(k) accounts
Under Current Law: Taxpayers can contribute up to $18,500 in pretax income to tax-preferred retirement accounts like 401(k)s for tax year 2018.
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: No change.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects People who deduct state and local taxes
Under Current Law: Tax filers who itemize deductions can deduct different types of state and local taxes from their taxable income on their federal tax returns.
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: Itemizers could still deduct property taxes, but not other types of state and local taxes, like income or sales tax. Additionally, they would only be able to deduct up to $10,000 in property taxes.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects the estate tax exemption
Under Current Law: Taxes must be paid on any estate with assets worth more than $5.6 million for tax year 2018 (or $11.2 million per married couple). The tax rate on those assets ranges from 18 percent to 40 percent, depending on the size of the estate. Right now, only a tiny sliver of the very wealthiest estates are subject to this tax.
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: The estate tax exemption would immediately double, meaning individual estates would only be taxed on assets of more than $11.2 million for tax year 2018. Additionally, after six years, the estate tax would be eliminated entirely.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects Small-business owners
Under Current Law: Sole proprietorships, as well as a few other types of businesses (not all of them small), are taxed through the individual income tax code and at individual income tax rates. (For this reason, they are often called “pass through” businesses, as their income gets passed on to the owner, who files the taxes with her income tax returns.)
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: Pass-through income would be taxed at a lower rate — 25 percent. However, the GOP has added in measures to discourage higher-income workers, who would pay a rate up to 39.6 percent, from trying to take advantage of the 25 percent rate for their wage income.
For example, the 25 percent rate would not apply to all types of pass-through income. The bill would tax income from a labor-intensive business, such as an accountant or a performer, at individual rates.
How Proposed Tax Code Changes Affects Homeowners
Under Current Law: Homeowners who itemize their deductions can deduct the interest paid on up to $1 million of their mortgage principal.
Under the House – Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: The deduction would be limited to up to $500,000 of new mortgages, not $1 million. Also, mortgages on second homes would no longer be deductible.