Nigeria Bans Codeine-based Cough Syrups

by Bamidele Ogunberu Posted on May 2nd, 2018

Abuja, Nigeria: Nigeria’s ministry of health banned the production and importation of codeine as active pharmaceutical ingredient for cough preparations – in a statement in Abuja, Tuesday.

The Minister Of Health,  Professor Isaac Adewole, directed the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) to ban the issuance of permits for the importation of codeine as active pharmaceutical ingredient for cough preparations.

He also directed the Pharmaceutical Council of Nigeria, (PCN) and NAFDAC to supervise the recall for labelling and audit trailing of all codeine containing cough syrups nationwide.

Adewole said government had also banned the sale of codeine containing cough syrup without prescription.

He said the directive became necessary due to the gross abuse of codeine in the country and to avoid an opioid epidemic.

In this regard, the minister said PCN had been directed to continue enforcement activities on pharmacies, patent and proprietary medicine vendors’ shops and outlets throughout the country.

He also directed NAFDAC to carry out its functions in compliance with the new directives.

The minister said cough syrups containing codeine should be replaced with dextromethorphan which is less addictive.

Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant used to treat coughing, it is also a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties.

Adewole said the ministry would  ensure collaboration among regulatory agencies for effective implementation of extant laws, regulations, policies and guidelines on codeine control and usage.

He said the regulatory agencies included NAFDAC, PCN, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN).

“ These agencies shall work together to increase pharmacovigilance around codeine, tramadol and other related substances of abuse,’’ Adewole said.

Adewole said the ministry would partner National Orientation Agency (NOA), Nigeria Football Federation (NFF), Football celebrities and other celebrities to drive the national campaign against drug abuse.

“The ministry shall ensure that drug treatment intervention for victims of substances abuse shall be undertaken across the spectrum of health care delivery system in the country,’’ he said.

The minister said Civil Society Organisations would be strengthened to deliver effective sensitisation, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation services.

He renewed the commitment of government to ensure the full implementation of the National Drug Distribution Guideline (NDDG) by Jan. 01, 2019.

He added that the NDDG would also ensure the closure of all open drug markets penultimate the implementation date of the NDDG that is, Dec. 31, 2018.

It is estimated that as many as three million bottles of codeine syrup are drunk every single day in just two states, Kano and Jigawa.

The ban came as Aisha Buhari, wife of the president expressed concern about the addiction rate to the drug, especially in northern Nigeria.

On her Instagram page, she asked for action from the authorities.

“I call on all security agencies, lawmakers, judiciary, drug manufacturers, civil society, regulators, teachers, parents, neighbours and you to take this as a personal war and halt the menace,” she added.

Her intervention may have spurred government intervention, especially as it coincided with revelations that a pharmaceutical company in Lagos sold 60 bottles of the syrup to an undercover reporter in one fell swoop.

The company, Emzor Pharmaceuticals has sacked the sales executive, while it said it has also shut down the production of the codeine based cough syrup and would suspend all distribution of the cough syrup within Nigeria.

Although codeine is legal in Nigeria, it is against the law to sell the medicine without a doctor’s prescription.

The Nigerian Senate says that as many as 3 million bottles of codeine syrup are consumed every day in two states, Kano and Jigawa.

Young students commonly consume the codeine after mixing the syrup with soft drinks. Serious abuse of codeine cough syrup can result in kidney damage and seizures, as well as mental psychosis — including delusions, hallucinations and schizophrenia.

The Nigerian government is directing the country’s residents to use the less-addictive Dextromethorphan as an alternative to codeine-based cough syrups while stores with the last-remaining codeine cough syrups can sell the product only when customers have a prescription for it.

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Bamidele Ogunberu

Bamidele Ogunberu

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